### Comparison of long-time second basemen to an average second baseman

In November-December, 1997, there was a discussion on SABR-L about the Hall-of-Fame cases for Phil Rizzutto and Pee-Wee Reese. One of the issues raised was how Rizzutto compared to the "average" shortstop. One way to look at this is to take the average totals of the regular shortstops for each team in the league and then total these over a player's career.

I had done this calculation several years ago to look at Bill Mazeroski's statistics and found results similar to those that Mike Emeigh found using a slightly different method.

I found the "average 2b" in each of Mazeroski's seasons. In his last two seasons, Mazeroski was a back-up, so I pro-rated the totals to his actual games played. In his seasons as a regular I used the average number of games played for the average secondbaseman, giving credit for durability (the "Gehrig-Ripken effect") The totals are below
statistics notes and definitions  are at the bottom of the page. I have repeated the calculations for several other second basemen.

Eddie Collins 18yrs., 7 yrs. back-up

```           G   AB    H    2b  3b HR   RBI   R   BB   SO   SB   BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
avg. 2b  2531 9068 2517  399 121 46   999 1253  936 513  339  .278 .345 .364 .709 4.43
Collins  2826 9949 3315  438 187 47  1300 1821 1499 286  744  .333 .421 .429 .850 6.90
G@2b   PO    A    E   DP    FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b  2208  5147 6540  474  996  .961 5.29 .451 2.33 2.96
Collins  2650  6526 7630  435 1215  .970 5.34 .458 2.46 2.88
```
Collins had an OWL of .708, his career Park Factor was .98, making his adjusted OWL .715. His RF was +.0476 above the average 2b his errors were 1.31 times less frequent than the average 2b.

Bobby Doerr 13 yrs., 1 yr. back-up, 1 yr. WWII
```           G   AB    H    2b 3b  HR   RBI   R    BB  SO  SB  BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
Avg. 2b  1743 6473 1718  299 65 111   798  857  697 603  81  .265 .337 .383 .720 4.48
Doerr    1865 7093 2042  381 89 223  1247 1094  809 608  54  .288 .361 .461 .822 5.96
G@2b   PO    A   E   DP    FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b  1640  4114 4831 249 1189  .973 5.45 .725 2.51 2.95
Doerr    1852  4928 5710 214 1507  .980 5.74 .814 2.66 3.08
```
Doerr had an OWL of .639 with a park factor of 1.04 dropping his adjusted OWL to .619. His RF was +.2892 above the average econd baseman, his errors were 1.37 times less frequent.

Nellie Fox 15yrs., 4 yrs. back-up
```           G   AB    H    2b  3b  HR  RBI   R    BB  SO  SB  BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
Avg. 2b  2081 7583 2035  313  68 102  737  993  723 697  76 .268 .332 .368 .700 4.26
Fox      2367 9232 2663  355 112  35  790 1279  719 216  76 .288 .340 .363 .703 4.42
G@2b   PO    A   E   DP    FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b  1888  4609 5140 215 1353  .978 5.17 .717 2.44 2.72
Fox      2295  6090 6373 209 1619  .984 5.43 .705 2.65 2.78
```
Fox had an OWL of .518, his career Park Factor was .98, making his adjusted OWL .526. His RF was +.2655 above the average 2b, his errors were 1.31 times less fequent.

Joe Gordon 11yrs., 3 yrs WWII
```           G   AB    H    2b 3b  HR  RBI  R    BB  SO  SB   BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
Avg. 2b  1417 5236 1381  246 51  98  672 688  576 497  57  .264 .337 .387 .724 4.51
Gordon   1566 5707 1530  264 52 253  975 914  759 702  89  .268 .354 .466 .820 5.74
G@2b   PO    A    E   DP    FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b  1339  3338 3937  204  967  .973 5.43 .722 2.49 2.94
Gordon   1519  3600 4706  260 1160  .970 5.47 .764 2.37 3.10
```
His OWL was .619, but his park factor was .96 making his offensive level a mirror image of Bobby Doerr's. Gordon's adjusted OWL was .639. His range factor was +.0337 above the average 2b and he made errors 0.90 times less frequently than the average 2b. (i.e. more often) In every season after his rookie season, there were more runs scored per game in Gordon's road games than in his home games.

Nap Lajoie 18 yrs., 1 yr. back-up, 1 yr. 1b, 1 yr. 1b back-up
```           G   AB    H    2b  3b HR   RBI   R    BB  SO  SB    BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
Avg. 2b  2504 9177 2513  389 141 45  1084 1226  744 154  393  .274 .326 .362 .690 4.17
Lajoie   2480 9589 3242  658 163 83  1599 1504  516  85  380  .338 .372 .467 .839 6.69
G@2b   PO    A    E   DP   FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b  2118  4883 6211  556  785 .952 5.24 .371 2.31 2.93
Lajoie   2035  5496 6262  451 1050 .963 5.78 .516 2.70 3.08
```
His OWL was .720, his career Park Factor was 1.00, so his adjusted OWL was .720. His RF was +.5401 and he made errors 1.29 times less frequently than the average.

Bill Mazeroski 15yrs, 2yrs back-up
```            G   AB    H    2b 3b  HR  RBI  R    BB  SO  SB   BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
Avg. 2b   2127 7785 2035  302 66  92  654 978  639 801  125 .261 .317 .353 .670 3.87
Mazeroski 2163 7755 2016  294 62 138  853 769  447 706   84 .260 .300 .368 .667 3.80
G@2b   PO    A    E   DP    FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b   1948  4421 5378  231 1234  .977 5.03 .634 2.27 2.76
Mazeroski 2094  4974 6685  204 1706  .983 5.57 .815 2.38 3.19
```
Mazeroski's OWL was .491, his career Park Factor was .99, making his adjusted OWL .497. His RF relative to league was +.5370 and he made errors 1.34 times less frequently than average. Mazeroski was roughly an average offensive secondbaseman, a little weak in ability to get on base, but with good power. He made an extra out every other game, an outstanding defensive performance.  Mike Emeigh's analysis is worth checking out. Most of Mazeroski's career was spent in Forbes field, a notoriously difficult home run park. During Mazeroski's years, the Pirates played 1353 games at home. 1503 home runs were hit in these games. The Pirates played 1354 games on the road - 2370 home runs were hit in these games. An average secoond baseman playing in these situtations would drop from the average of 92 HR to 78HR. Mazeroski's home park (mostly Forbes Field) seems to have hurt his greatest offensive strength. A more detailed look at the context of Mazeroski's performance is being worked on for my Maz page.

Bid McPhee 18yrs.
```            G   AB    H    2b 3b  HR   RBI   R    BB  SO  SB   BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
Avg. 2b   2000 7813 2063  277 123 72   741 1350  751 251 412  .264 .329 .347 .676 3.96
McPhee    2135 8291 2250  303 188 53  1067 1678  981 229 568  .271 .348 .372 .720 4.54
G@2b   PO    A    E   DP    FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b  1895  5175 5917  893  825  .925 5.85 .435 2.73 3.12
McPhee   2126  6545 6905  791 1186  .944 6.33 .558 3.08 3.25
```
McPhee's OWL was .569, his career Park Factor was 1.02, making his adjusted OWL .559. His RF was +.4747 and E rate was 1.34 times better than average. McPhee was one of the top second basemen of the 19th century.

Red Schoendienst 13yrs., 1 yr. LF, 5 yrs. back-up
```               G   AB    H    2b 3b  HR  RBI   R    BB  SO  SB   BA   AOB  SLG AOPS RC/G
Avg. 2b      2055 7511 2012  325 70 105  731 1030  770 666  120  .268 .336 .372 .708 4.35
Schoendienst 2216 8479 2449  427 78  84  773 1223  606 346   89  .289 .336 .387 .723 4.67
G@2b   PO    A    E   DP    FA   RF  DP/G PO/G  A/G
avg. 2b      1651  4088 4584  210 1136  .976 5.25 .688 2.48 2.78
Schoendienst 1834  4616 5243  170 1368  .983 5.38 .746 2.52 2.86
```
Schoendient's OWL was .536. His career Park Factor was 1.02, making his adjusted OWL .526. His RF was +.1226 and his E rate was 1.39 times better than average.
##### Statistical Notes
The "Approximate On Base Average", AOB, was computed using the formula (H+BB)/(AB+BB), since the Sports Encyclopedia Baseball did not list HBP totals for players.

OPS is On-base average + Slugging average. AOPS is AOB+SLG.

RC/G is computed using the simple Bill James "Runs Created per Game", with "Runs created given by RC=(H+BB)*TB/(AB+BB), outs by outs=(AB-H) and RC/G=RC*25.5/outs.

RF is the simple "range factor", RF=(PO+A)/G

DP/G is double plays divided by games played at secondbase.

"Park Factor" is an estimate of how many runs an average team would score playing half their games in the particular park. For each team-season, this is computed using RH, runs per game a home, and RR, runs per game on the road. In a league with T teams, PF= (RH/2+RR/2)/(RH/T + (T-1)*RR/t). A player's "career Park Facto" is computed by taking the weighted average of the seasonal park factors, weighting by the number of AB+BB that the player had.

OWL is the player's "Offensive Won-Lost percentage" relative to the average, figured using the Bill James "Pythagorean Formula", (player RC/G)^2/ ( (player RC/G)^2+(avgRC/G)^2). The "adjusted OWL" is computed by multiplying the average RC/G by the player's career Park Factor.

Send comments to me at john.rickert@rose-hulman.edu